Machines are going to do driving for humans in the future, but technological limitations are still an obstacle in the row.
FREMONT, CA: The automotive industry is planning to launch fully-automated cars so serve the market with driverless riding. Autonomous cars, self-driven cars, or robot cars are the vehicles which are capable of self-drive and can guide themselves without human assistance. Computers in self-driven cars take the art of driving.
Advanced driver assistance system is necessary for an automated car. It should consist of the following: Adaptive Cruise Control, Traffic Sign Recognition, Automatic Parking, Ability to monitor blind spot, System to avoid the collision, Driver Monitoring System, Forward Collision Warning, Driver Drowsiness Detection, Hill Descent Control, and Lane Departure Warning.
1. Roads will be safer – A self-driving car will be much secure and reduce traffic-related deaths. Many accidents cause death so Self-driving car will decrease the death-rate.
2. Get more free time – A self-driving car will decrease congestion on the road so it will lead to less traffic and fast journeys. On the other hand, the time which is used for driving can be utilized in some other way. It will create more time for other things than commuting.
3. Fuel-efficiency will improve – As there will be less traffic congestion, which will lead to less fuel consumption. It will improve fuel efficiency and reduce carbon emissions. It will also decrease the amount of smoke emitted by cars.
4. Money- saver – These cars are going to be money-savers because fewer crashes will reduce the cost of insurance. It will also reduce medical bills and vehicle repair.
5. Eco-friendly – Fewer traffic jams save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide and other polluted smoke. It will lead to a green and clean environment.
6. Greater Independence – The people who are differently-able or blind can also travel without anyone’s dependence. The self-driven car will provide a self-sufficient platform for these people.
There are six levels of semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles:
Level 0: Zero automation
The cars of level 0 require human hands to do all the driving because it lacks features like automatic emergency braking and adaptive cruise control. This type of car has zero advanced driver assistance systems.
Level 1: Driver Assistance
Level 1 vehicle can sometimes assist human drivers. This vehicle can steer, brake or accelerate for the driver, but cannot perform two actions simultaneously.
Level 2: Limited Automation
The vehicles of level 2 can perform the actions simultaneously but under some circumstances only. However, the driver has to pay attention and maintain focus and be ready to control if any emergency arises.
Level 3: Restrictive Automation
The vehicles with restricted automation have several advanced driver assistance systems working together. This vehicle can control all aspects in some circumstances, and the driver only has to take back control when requested.
Level 4: High Automation
The high automation vehicles are more like level 3 vehicles. The only difference is level4 vehicle does not need a human to pay attention, as the car can monitor the driving environment.
Level 5: Complete Automation
A complete automation vehicle can control all driving tasks in all situations without any human assistance.
Basically, there are two types of autonomous vehicles. One depends on sensor technology to learn about the road environment, other traffic, pedestrians, etc. Its computing system has the ability to respond to all these. Other vehicles are based on networks where nearby vehicles might communicate with each other, and a lot of the computing will be done in the cloud. This information may be mistaken sometimes because of wireless connectivity in a moving vehicle.
A human cannot blindly trust and depend on artificial intelligence, and autonomous technologies, because these technologies are good servants but always not a good master. Following are the disadvantages of a self-driven car:
1. Expensive self-driving car – Self-driving cars will be no doubt expensive. Many ordinary people could not afford to buy such a costly vehicle.
2. Worst crashes may occur – Autonomous devices control the self-driving car, so even a minor malfunction may lead to worst accidents.
3. Security issues – Hackers may hack the operating system of the car, which will lead to an insecure environment for the passenger.
4. Disability to understand human behavior – These cars can understand the technological signals easily through their computer-controlled devices, but not complex human behavior that can change from each individual without a common pattern given the situation.
5. Need to change road systems – The system of roads should be restructured to adjust the driverless cars to the streets.
Automakers, manufacturers, and tech companies are facing a significant challenge. They are struggling to wrap these techniques into one system that will work properly in a safe manner. Google cars are on roads for years, and many other companies are planning to launch this service this year.